Strawman Arguments: What They Are and How to Counter Them

  A strawman is a fallacious argument that distorts an opposing stance in order to make it easier to attack. Essentially, the person using the strawman pretends to attack their opponent’s stance, while in reality they are actually attacking a distorted version of that stance, which their opponent doesn’t necessarily support. For example, if someone says “I think …

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The Stages of Learning: How You Become More Competent at Skills

  The stages of learning model is a psychological framework which explains how people become more competent when learning a skill. According to this model, as people learn a skill, they advance up a hierarchy of competence, which includes four main levels of competence: unconscious incompetence, conscious incompetence, conscious competence, and unconscious competence. Each of …

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The Illusion of Transparency: Why You’re Not as Obvious as You Think You Are

  The illusion of transparency is a cognitive bias which causes people to believe that their thoughts and emotions are more apparent to others than is actually the case. For example, the illusion of transparency can cause people who feel nervous about public speaking to overestimate the degree to which their nervousness is noticed by the …

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