The NATO Phonetic Alphabet: What It Is and How to Use It

  A phonetic alphabet is an alphabet in which each letter is represented by a codeword that starts with that letter. For example, in a phonetic alphabet, the letter ‘B’ could be represented by the word ‘Bravo’, while the letter ‘P’ could be represented by the word ‘Papa’. The NATO phonetic alphabet, which uses a standardized set …

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Who Should and Who Shouldn’t Eat Before Going Grocery Shopping

  A common piece of conventional wisdom is that you should never go grocery shopping on an empty stomach. Intuitively, this makes sense: if you’re already full when you go to buy food, you’ll be less tempted to buy extra food items. However, studies on the topic show that this is not always the case. Rather, …

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How to Proofread Your Writing Effectively

  Did you ever spend hours going over the same document again and again, and found yourself automatically skipping over whole words and sentences, because you already read this text so many times that your brain just goes on autopilot? Proofreading is an important but tedious part of writing. The problem is that since your brain …

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The Spotlight Effect: How to Stop Being Self-Conscious

  The spotlight effect is a cognitive bias that causes people to overestimate the degree to which they are observed and noticed by others, as well as the degree to which others care about the things that they notice about them. For example, the spotlight effect could cause someone to think that everyone is going …

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Look Forward, Reason Backward: A Primary Principle of Strategic Thinking

One of the basic principles in game theory is that you should look forward and reason back. Essentially, this means that before making a move, you should consider all the possible moves that you and the other players can make, together with the possible outcomes that these moves lead to. Then, consider how desirable each outcome …

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The Best Type of Subtitles to Use When Learning a Foreign Language

  When you learn a new language, it’s important to get a lot of exposure to it. One of the best ways to do this is by watching movies and TV shows in your target language. In general, it’s better for you to watch foreign-language videos with subtitles, rather than without them. However, this gives rise …

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Strawman Arguments: What They Are and How to Counter Them

  A strawman is a fallacious argument that distorts an opposing stance in order to make it easier to attack. Essentially, the person using the strawman pretends to attack their opponent’s stance, while in reality they are actually attacking a distorted version of that stance, which their opponent doesn’t necessarily support. For example, if someone says “I think …

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How to Win at Arm Wrestling and Avoid Injury

  Arm wrestling is often used as a trial of strength, which is meant to ‘prove’ how strong you are. However, while physical strength does matter, most people have no idea how to utilize it effectively, especially in this context. This means that by making a few simple modifications to your technique, you should easily …

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