Logical Fallacies: What They Are and How to Counter Them

  A logical fallacy is a pattern of reasoning that contains a flaw, either in its logical structure or in its premises. An example of a logical fallacy is the false dilemma, which is a logical fallacy that occurs when a limited number of options are incorrectly presented as being mutually exclusive to one another …

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The Masked-Man Fallacy: Twisting Arguments Through Invalid Substitutions

  The masked-man fallacy is a logical fallacy that is committed when someone assumes that if two or more names or descriptions refer to the same thing, then they can be freely substituted with one another, in a situation where that’s not the case. For example, the masked-man fallacy could occur if someone claimed that, …

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The Appeal to Nature Fallacy: Why “Natural” Isn’t Necessarily Better

  The appeal to nature is a logical fallacy that occurs when something is claimed to be good because it’s perceived as natural, or bad because it’s perceived as unnatural. For example, a person using an appeal to nature might suggest using herbal remedies when treating a serious medical condition, despite what research says on the …

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Strawman Arguments: What They Are and How to Counter Them

  A strawman is a fallacious argument that distorts an opposing stance in order to make it easier to attack. Essentially, the person using the strawman pretends to attack their opponent’s stance, while in reality they are actually attacking a distorted version of that stance, which their opponent doesn’t necessarily support. For example, if someone says “I think …

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